What were
the social, economic and
conditions in Russia before 1905?​


What were
the social, economic and
conditions in Russia before 1905?​

Letitia 2 years 2021-08-23T08:07:06+00:00 0

Answers ( )



    hope it will help you


    Political Conditions:

    Russia at the time of the revolution was under the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II who believed in the Divine Right of Kings. A system of governance unsuited to needs of modern times.

    The Russian empire was vast and feudal. The bureaucracy was top heavy, inefficient and recruited from the privileged classes rather than on the basis of merit and ability. The Russian Tsars had built a vast empire by conquest of various nationalities. They were subjected to Russian culture and languages. The Tsar showed little concern to their sensitivity.

    Social Conditions:

    Russia before 1905 was still living in the old world, under the autocratic rule of the Tsar. Russian society was divided into three classes-the clergy, nobility and the working class. ,

    Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants continued to live in misery.

    (i) For small holdings peasants had to pay heavy redemption dues.

    (ii) Vast estates were owned by the Russian nobility and the church.

    (iii)Land hunger of the peasants was a major social factor in Russian Society.

    The last quarter of the 19th century saw the growth and spread of socialist ideas and groups in the countryside and among the workers. They played a vital role in the spread of awareness and struggled for workers and peasants rights. The social scene in Russia before 1905 was riddled with inherent tensions. There was lack of interplay between state and society.

    Economic Conditions:

    Industrialisation brought a new class the industrial worker, who lived in conditions of misery. Workers had no political rights and no means of gaining even minor reforms. Work hours were long, wages were poor and unemployment common.

    The middle class and intellectuals were also opposed and united against the exploitative system based on privileges.

    The state exchequer was bankrupt, due to the spendthrift ways of the Tsar, expensive wars, burden of the bureaucracy and maintaining a large army. The privileged classes, clergy and nobility who could afford were exempt from taxes while the poor peasantry and working class were burdened with taxes. Industry in Russia developed largely due to foreign investment. Foreign investors were only interested in quick profits at the expense of workers.



    At the beginning of the 20th century about 85% of the Russia’s population was agriculturists.

    Russia was a major exporter of grains. Industry was found in pockets only. Most industries

    were run by the private industrialists. Because of wide spread corruption and exploitations,

    sometimes workers did not get even the minimum wages and also there was no limit of working

    hours. Russia was an autocracy and was ruled by the Tsar. The Tsar, especially Tsar Nicholas

    II was a self-willed, corrupt, oppressive ruler. He ignored public welfare as a result of which

    the conditions of the peasants and workers had also become very deplorable. The workers and

    peasants both were divided. Peasants frequently refused to pay rent and even murdered

    landlords. Being influenced by the democratic experiments by the Western European countries,

    the Russians also demanded a responsible government but all their demands were turned down.

    Consequently, even the moderate reformers began to talk of revolutions.

    During the rule of Tsar Nicholas II the privileged had got special rights while the general public

    including the workers and farmers had no say in the government. The situation had become so

    explosive that even the liberals campaigned to end this state of affairs. The Russian Social

    Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists who respected Marx’s ideas. In

    1903, this party was divided into two groups – Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks,

    who were in majority, were led by Lenin who is regarded as the greatest thinker on socialism

    after Marx.

Leave an answer


12:4+4*3-6:3 = ? ( )